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Herb & Spice Chart

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Name Type Characteristics Example Use
Allspice  Spice: whole ground  Small brown berry, flavor resembles a combination cinnamon, clove, and nutmeg. Native to West India.  Sausages, braised meats, poached fish, cooked fruits, puddings, pies, and relishes. 
Anise  Spice: whole or ground    Herb: leaf, fresh or dried.  Licorice flavor. Native to Spain, China, and Syria.  Cookies, pastries, and bread. 
Basil  Herb: leaf, fresh or dried.  Aromatic green leaf. Member of mint family.  Tomato dishes, pesto, egg dished, salads, marinades, fish, and compound butters. 
Bay Leaf  Herb: whole leaf.  Stiff dark green, oblong leaf with a pungent aroma reminiscent of sassafras. Comes from the Laurel tree.  Stocks, sauces, soup, stews, and braised meats. 
Bouquet Garni  Flavoring mix.  A personal selection of herbs, vegetables and occasionally spices, often tied with a string.  Stocks, soups, and sauces. 
Caraway  Spice: whole seed.  Dark brown curved seed. Grown in Northern Europe.  Rye bread, cabbage, sauerkraut, and Eastern European Cuisine. 
Cardamom  Spice: whole pod or ground seed.  Tiny brown seeds, white or green pods. Sweet, aromatic, and expensive. Native of India and Guatemala.  Pickling, Danish pastries, and curries. 
Cayenne  Spice: ground, seed.  Very powerful, ground hot red pepper. Native of French Guiana.  Soups, sauces, fish, and eggs. 
Celery Seed  Spice: whole seed or ground.  Tiny brown seed with strong celery flavor. Too much can create a "hot" spice effect.   Salads, dressings, pickling, tomato dishes, and marinades. 
Chervil  Herb: leaf, fresh or dried.  Small, delicate, green leaf.  Mild flavor of parsley and tarragon.  Soups, salads, sauces, egg, dishes, chicken, fish, and dressing. 
Chili Powder  Spice: ground, blend.  Blend of ground cumin, chili pepper, oregano, allspice. Can be mild or hot.  Chili, stews, sauces, and ground meats. 
Chives  Herb: fresh, dried, frozen.  Fine, hollow, green top of a very small onion.  Salads, egg and cheese dishes, fish soups, and sauces. 
Cilantro  Herb: leaf, dried or fresh.  Light green aromatic leaf. Shaped like flat parsley but much more pungent flavor. Leaf from coriander seed.  Salads, salsa, sauces, soup, eggs, and dressings. 
Cinnamon  Spice: stick or ground  Reddish brown aromatic bark from cinnamon or cassia tree. Native of East India.  Preserves, stewed fruits, breads, pastries, desserts, ham, and hot beverages. 
Clove  Spice: whole or ground  Dried flower bud of tropical clove tree. Pungent, sweet in flavor. Native of Indonesia.  Whole: Marinades, stocks, sauces, braised meats, hams, and pickling.  Ground: pastries, fruits and cakes. 
Coriander  Spice: whole or ground  Round light-brown seed of cilantro leaf with a slightly aromatic flavor. Native to Argentina and Morocco.  Pickling, sausages, stocks, pork, curry, gingerbread, salsa, and dressings. 
Cumin  Spice: whole or ground seed.  Small seed resembling caraway, but lighter in color. Grown in Mexico and Syria.  Chili and curry powder blends, sausages, salsa, egg & cheese, curry dishes, vegetables, soups, sauces, fish, meat, and rice. 
Curry  Spice: ground, powder or paste.  Mixture of up to 20 spices including turmeric, cumin, coriander, ginger, clove, and cinnamon. Peppery, yellow in color. Can vary from mild to very hot.  Curry dishes, vegetables, soups, sauces, fish, meat, and rice. 
Dill  Herb: Leaves, fresh or dried.  Herbs and seed with "dill pickle" flavor. Seed more pungent than herb.  Seed: pickling, soups, sauerkraut, marinade. Herb: salads, soups, fish & shellfish, vegetables, sauces, and vinegar. 
Spice: whole seed. 
Fennel  Spice: whole seed.  Greenish brown seed, similar in flavor to anise. Grown in South America, Asia, and Africa.  Sausages, tomato sauces, marinades, fish, and pickling. 
Fine Herbs  Herb blend  Generally a bouquet blend of three or more finely chopped herbs possibly including chives, tarragon, parsley, basil, savory, etc. Used to enhance various dishes.  Herb sauce, compound butters, broiled meats, fish, and cold sauces. 
Garlic  Fresh, whole bulb.  Strong aromatic member of onion family.  Widely used. 
Dried bulb: Granulated, powdered, or mixed with salt. 
Ginger  Spice: fresh whole, dried powder, candied crystallized, or pickled.  Light brown knobby root from tropical plant.  Baked goods, desserts, fruits, curry dishes, pickling, and chutney. Chinese, Caribbean, and Japanese cuisine. 
Juniper Berry  Spice: whole  Slightly soft, purple berry. "Piney" flavor. Principle flavor of gin.  Marinades, game dishes, and sauerkraut. 
Mace  Spice: whole "blade" or ground.  Made from orange red outer covering of nutmeg. Aromatic, similar to nutmeg in flavor but milder.  Baked goods, desserts, fruit, sausages, fish, vegetables, and preserves. 
Marjoram  Herb: dried leaf.  Gray green herb from mint family. Similar to oregano but milder.  Beef, veal, lamb, sausage, pates, poultry, stews, soups, vegetables, salads, and sauces. 
Mint  Herb: leaf, fresh or dried.  Aromatic herb with cool flavor. Spearmint and peppermint are most common.  Lamb, fruits, tea, fruit beverages, peas, carrots, potatoes, jellies, soups, and sauces. 
Mirepoix  Flavoring mix  Mixture of aromatic vegetables including onion, celery, carrot, leek, and garlic.  Stocks, sauces, soups, and roasts. 
Mustard Seed  Spice: whole and ground seed.  Very pungent white, yellow or brown seed.  Prepared mustard, pickling, sauces, and salsa. 
Nasturtium  Leaf and seed.  Plant with yellow, orange, and red flowers and sharp casting leaves and seeds with pungent odor.  Salads, pickling, and mustard. 
Nutmeg  Spice: whole or ground.  Sweet, aromatic kernels of nutmeg fruit. Grown in Netherlands, East and West Indies.  Baked goods, pies, cream sauces, soups, chicken, veal, vegetables, desserts, and breads. 
Oregano  Herb: leaf or ground, fresh or dried.  Pungent herb, similar to marjoram, but stronger. Native to Italy and Mexico. Also grown domestically.  Italian & Mexican dishes, tomato sauces, soups, sauces, stews, meats, salads, and marinades. 
Paprika  Spice: ground  Ground from dried sweet, red pepper.  Fish, seafood, meats, salads, sauces, dressings, and garnish. 
Parsley  Herb: fresh leaf in bunches, dried chopped leaf.  Green leaf, curly or flat, with delicate sweet flavor. Excellent source of vitamin C.  Garnish, fried, stews, sauces, salads, vegetables, and potatoes. 
Pepper Spice: whole, cracked, medium or fine ground.  Small hard berry.  Widely used 
black, white, or green  Black: pungent, aromatic.    White: What is left when black outer casing is removed, milder, adds sharp tang to all foods. Green: Packed in mild brine. 
Poppy Seeds  Spice: whole.  Tiny blue black seeds with crunchy nut like flavor. It is a product of the opium poppy, but does not contain opium.  Breads, rolls, pastry, fillings, cookies, cakes, salsa, and dressings. 
Rosemary  Herb: whole leaf, fresh or dried.  Very aromatic light green leaf resembling pine needles. Healthy and strong, even in cold weather.  Lamb, fish, beef, sauces, soups, stews, salads, and marinades. 
Sachet Bag  Spice mix.  Various spices tied in a small cheesecloth sack.  Braised meats, game, stews, pickling, soups, and sauces. 
Saffron  Whole "threads."  Only the stigmas from the saffron crocus are used.  Very expensive.  Gives bright yellow color to foods with a mild distinctive flavor.  Baked goods, rice, potatoes, soups, sauces, curry, and meats. 
Sage  Herb: whole, rubbed, or ground leaf, fresh or dried.  Pungent gray green herb with fuzzy oblong leaves.  Stuffing, meat, poultry, soups, stews, salads, and fish. 
Savory  Herb: fresh or dried leaf.  Fragrant herb of mint family.  Summer crop preferred to Winter crop.  Salads, eggs, vegetables, stuffing, soups, meats, fish, and sauces. 
Sesame  Herb: whole (hulled or unhealed) seeds.  Small yellowish seed with high oil content and nutty taste. Imported from Asia, East and Central America.  Bread & roll garnish, salads, and oriental candy. 
Tarragon  Herb: fresh, dried, pickled leaf.  Delicate green herb with small oblong leaves. Flavor is similar to mint and licorice.  Béarnaise sauce, vinegar, chicken, fish, salads, dressings, and eggs. 
Thyme  Herb: fresh or dried leaf, crushed or ground.  Tiny brownish green leaf, very aromatic.  Soups, chowders, stocks, sauces, meats, poultry, and salad dressing. 
Turmeric  Spice: ground  Intense yellow root of ginger family.  Mild but peppery flavor.  Curry powder, pickles, relish, salads, eggs, rice, and chow-chow.